Management of hip fracture.
Fernandez MA., Griffin XL., Costa ML.
INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture poses a significant global challenge both to healthcare systems and to patients themselves. We outline the management of this injury, highlight areas where the evidence is deficient and discuss research efforts towards improving the quality of the evidence base. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library, using the core search terms 'hip fracture' and 'proximal femoral fracture'. In addition we reviewed national treatment guidelines for hip fracture care and references from relevant articles. Only articles published in English from inception to March 2015 were included. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Modern hip fracture management should consist of a coordinated multidisciplinary approach with orthogeriatrician input, early surgery, adequate analgesia and liaison with related services to facilitate safe supported discharge. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The optimum thromboprophylaxis to reduce venous thromboembolism remains a topic for debate. The use of bone cement has received much attention recently with concerns about its safety in the frailest of hip fracture patients. GROWING POINTS: An increasing understanding of the severity and impact of sustaining a hip fracture upon quality of life. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH: Strategies to improve postoperative mobility, postoperative nutrition and the role of home-based rehabilitation. There is a need to identify the optimum analgesic regimes and assessment tools for hip fracture patients with cognitive impairment.