Identification of new genetic risk factors for prostate cancer.
Guy M., Kote-Jarai Z., Giles GG., Al Olama AA., Jugurnauth SK., Mulholland S., Leongamornlert DA., Edwards SM., Morrison J., Field HI., Southey MC., Severi G., Donovan JL., Hamdy FC., Dearnaley DP., Muir KR., Smith C., Bagnato M., Ardern-Jones AT., Hall AL., O'Brien LT., Gehr-Swain BN., Wilkinson RA., Cox A., Lewis S., Brown PM., Jhavar SG., Tymrakiewicz M., Lophatananon A., Bryant SL., UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators None., British Association of Urological Surgeons' Section of Oncology None., UK ProtecT Study Collaborators None., Horwich A., Huddart RA., Khoo VS., Parker CC., Woodhouse CJ., Thompson A., Christmas T., Ogden C., Fisher C., Jameson C., Cooper CS., English DR., Hopper JL., Neal DE., Easton DF., Eeles RA.
There is evidence that a substantial part of genetic predisposition to prostate cancer (PCa) may be due to lower penetrance genes which are found by genome-wide association studies. We have recently conducted such a study and seven new regions of the genome linked to PCa risk have been identified. Three of these loci contain candidate susceptibility genes: MSMB, LMTK2 and KLK2/3. The MSMB and KLK2/3 genes may be useful for PCa screening, and the LMTK2 gene might provide a potential therapeutic target. Together with results from other groups, there are now 23 germline genetic variants which have been reported. These results have the potential to be developed into a genetic test. However, we consider that marketing of tests to the public is premature, as PCa risk can not be evaluated fully at this stage and the appropriate screening protocols need to be developed. Follow-up validation studies, as well as studies to explore the psychological implications of genetic profile testing, will be vital prior to roll out into healthcare.